Saturday, May 16, 2020

Assess the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Functionalist...

Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the functionalist approach to society (33 marks) Functionalism is seen as a macro-scale approach to society; it sees society as a whole rather than looking at parts of it. Due to this, functionalism sees society as a body (organic analogy), all the institutions work together to make society. This is particularly useful when observing society in order to understand the way in which it functions and the way in which all the institutions (organic analogy: organs within the body) work together to sustain society as a whole. Functionalism being a macro-scale approach is therefore seen as a strength as it allows functionalist sociologists to observe society, and its institutions, as a whole.†¦show more content†¦This is therefore seen as a weakness of functionalism as society does have many inequalities which functionalism fails to acknowledge. Talcott Parsons, a functionalist sociologist who elaborated on Durkheim’s work about society and its functions, claimed that society is like an organism, in particular, the human body. He argued that all institutions, such as the family and the education system, within society function together to maintain society just as the organs within a human body work together to maintain life. In particular, Parsons identified three similarities between the human body and society; he claimed that they were both systems within themselves – all the parts of a body and the institutions within society fit together in fixed ways. He also identified that these ‘systems’ have needs – the human body needs nutrition to help it sustain life, whereas society needs adequate socialisation in order for society to continue functioning in the way that it does. Parsons also stated that both the human body and society have functions – the functions of the systems within the human body ensure that the body’s needs are meet thus maintaining life; whereas, in society, the economy functions to maintain the social system. As parsons’ analogy helps sociologists to better understand the way in which institutions in society workShow MoreRelatedMarxists theory to the sociological understanding of crime and deviance913 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Assess the contribution of the Marxist theory to the sociological understanding of crime and deviance. (21 marks) Marxism is a macro/structural approach to society, meaning that it looks at the large-scale societal structure for answers about how society works and operates and explores crime and deviance in relation to classes within a capitalist society. Marxists claim that laws do not reflect a value consensus, instead laws and law enforcement benefits the rich (protection of private property)Read MoreStrengths and Weaknesses of the Functionalist View on Society1459 Words   |  6 PagesAssess the strengths and weaknesses of the functionalist view on society. Functionalism is a consensus perspective, whereby society is based on shared values and norms into which members are socialised. For functionalists, society is seen as a system of social institutions such as the economy, religion and the family all of which perform socialisation functions. A strength of the functionalist theory is that it a macro level structural theory which uses an organic analogy- using the body asRead MoreBio and Socio Medical691 Words   |  3 Pagesexcludes psychological, environmental, and social influences. This model relates to the functionalist approach of health as it specifies that health is the absences of disease and it’s regarded as dysfunctional for the society as individuals cannot make a positive contribution to the running of society. According to the perspective of Marxists, he argued that doctors encourage the production rate of the society by explaining health as the potential to work, he also disseminated that working is betterRead MoreFamily as a Social Institution Essay1518 Words   |  7 Pagesrelation to the notion of families as authority relations rather than our modern terminology being of families as groups of loved ones. It is also important to note that marriage in those other than the elite in most white Christian societies was not a ceremony performed until the last 250 years or so. This was because of the way in which land and other things of value were to be divided and as only the rich had to worry about disbursement of assets after their deaths theyRead MoreFundamental Values Of Society And The Human Body2729 Words   |  11 Pagessociological perspectives Functionalism The functionalist method to sociology is best known for comparing society to the human body. The different institutions in society each have special offers to produce just as the body works through the structured interrelationship of basic organs, like the lungs, heart and liver. They use tactics of social control to deal distribute with abnormal members or groups, and they also work together. As a psychological approach, Talcott Parsons performed an importantRead MoreStarbucks Business Plan31663 Words   |  127 Pagestheory of science 14 3.1.1 Three methodological views of Arbnor and Bjerke 14 3.1.1.1 The analytical view 15 3.1.1.2 The systems view 17 3.1.1.3 The actors view 19 3.1.2 Four sociological paradigms of Burrell and Morgan 21 3.1.3 Functionalist paradigm 22 3.1.4 Interpretive paradigm 23 3.1.5 Radical humanist paradigm 23 3.1.6 Radical structuralist paradigm 23 3.2 Comparison of Arbnor amp; Bjerke and Burrell amp; Morgan 24 3.3 Limitations and Assumptions 26 3.4 ValidityRead MoreSociology Essay20437 Words   |  82 Pagesto make the necessary arrangement at the ï ¬ rst opportunity. C ontents Introduction to AS Sociology xxxi–l Module 1 Families and Households 1–102 Unit 1.1 Introduction Unit 1.2 Theoretical Explanations of the Role of Families in society Unit 1.3 Social Change and Families and Households: Demographic trends and statistical evidence Unit 1.4 Marriage, Cohabitation and Divorce Unit 1.5 Older Relatives and Children in Families Unit 1.6 Domestic Division of Labour Debate and PowerRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesand Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subject of organisational theory. Whilst their writing is accessible and engaging, their approach is scholarly and serious. It is so easy for students (and indeed others who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subject. This is not the case with the present book. This is a book that deserves to achieve a wideRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 Pagesaccounting. Serious in intent, he has striven both to illuminate practice and to provide ways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings, he has been open to a wide variety of other ideas, recognizing their intellectual strengths and capabilities rather than making artificial distinctions between what is acceptabl e and what is not. He also has contributed widely to the accounting literature, taking forward the British tradition of economic theorizing in financial accountingRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand Organizational Psychology. Fellowship: Dr. Judge is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Academy of Management, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the American Psychological Society. Awards: In 1995, Dr. Judge received the Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In 2001, he received the Larry L. Cummings Award for mid-career contributions from the Organizational

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay Men Vs. Women in Professional Sports - 1450 Words

Men Vs. Women in Professional Sports nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Ever since the ancient Greece, men have held athletic competitions or sports. It is only in modern times that women have had an opportunity to compete. Most sports still don’t have men and women directly competing against one another. In the past athletic instructors adapted the rules to make sports less physically taxing for women. For instance in basketball, to ensure that girls maintain proper decorum, they were forbidden from snatching the ball and dribbling it more than three times in row. Females would not be considered strong enough to play a full-court basketball game until 1971. Women have struggled to be taken seriously as athletes for more than two centuries.†¦show more content†¦Women first started taking great strides in professional sports during World War II. When the male professional baseball players went off to war, a group of team owners started a professional league for woman (the All-Am erican Girls Professional Baseball League). This league turned out to be successful. After the men came back from war, however the woman’s league could no longer sustain itself financially and had to shut down. Over the past twenty years, however there have been more and more professional women sports leagues opening and prospering. One such league is the WNBA (Women’s National Basketball Association), while the league opened being financially backed by the male league (NBA) over its first five years it has become a financial success with high profits and good TV ratings on major and cable networks. Some woman’s leagues even become just as or ever more successful that there male counterparts. An example of such a league in the women’s professional tennis tour which lately has had better television ratings and draws more fans than its male counterpart. In 2001 for the first time, ever the woman’s Final at the US Open Tennis Championship (the tours m ost prestigious played in the United States) was broadcast on a major television network (NBC) in primetime (8pm). Media coverage of womens sports is considered important because it increases the level ofShow MoreRelatedMen vs. Women in Professional Sports1502 Words   |  7 PagesMen Vs. Women in Professional Sports Ever since the ancient Greece, men have held athletic competitions or sports. It is only in modern times that women have had an opportunity to compete. Most sports still dont have men and women directly competing against one another. In the past athletic instructors adapted the rules to make sports less physically taxing for women. For instance in basketball, to ensure that girls maintain proper decorum, they were forbidden from snatching the ball and dribblingRead MoreThe Role Of Media As A Powerful Medium That Shapes And Reflects The Beliefs, Attitudes, And Values Of Society992 Words   |  4 Pagesunderstanding of social concepts embodied in sports. Duncan(1992) c onducted a study of female presentation in sports which examined male and female athletes presentation. She saw that there was a notable difference in the way commentators referred to men an women athletes. Women were referred to as â€Å"girls† or â€Å"women† and were also at times identified by their first name. Men on the other hand were never called â€Å"boys† but were referred to as â€Å"men†, â€Å"young-men†, or â€Å"young fellas† (Duncan, 1992). The descriptionsRead MoreNba vs Wnba1115 Words   |  5 PagesNBA vs WNBA Victor Zuniga Composition and Communication I June 30, 2013 Abstract We are going to talk about the differences about the National Basketball Association and the Woman National Basketball Association. Because right now the popularity on the WNBA is known than the NBA, mainly because of the excitement of the NBA brings to the fans is a lot more entertaining than the WNBA, obviously because in the NBA have more money to pay their players and to have nice venue. An interviewRead MoreNutritional Knowledge And Athletes : Nutrition1661 Words   |  7 Pagesnutritional habits. There was one study that examined male collegiate athletes and their knowledge about protein needs while another looked for a correlation between nutritional knowledge and nutritional habits in professional rugby players. A third study looked at the effect of a sports dietitian and gender differences on nutritional habits for collegiate athletes. In the following paragraphs, these three studies will be discussed in further detail. Protein is one of the three macronutrients requiredRead More Women in Sports and Sports Broadcasting Essay584 Words   |  3 PagesWomen in Sports and Sports Broadcasting Before I conducted this media analysis about women in sports and sport broadcasting, I hypothesized the obvious - that more male sports would be in the media, and that there would be more male sports broadcasters as well. Through my observations I did find that the sports arena and sports broadcasting sphere are male dominated. However, I also found that although there are not many stories about women, there has been a steady progression and magazinesRead MoreGender Stereotyping Of Sports Media1743 Words   |  7 PagesGender stereotyping in sports media is something we see everyday in magazines and on TV. Since sports were invented, males have dominated one of Canada’s largest pastimes. Reasons for this being physicality and strength, but as time progressed women began to become more involved in the culture of sport. Today there is almost an equal amount of women participating in sports as man, yet women are still not being represented with the same approach as men. Ab out a month ago I found a video onlineRead MoreComparing Basketball And The Basketball Association826 Words   |  4 PagesWNBA vs. NBA Basketball is one of the most popular sports played and watched nationwide and global. Shooting, dribbling, crossing someone up, and even dunking has caught the eye of many people around the world. Many basketball players start at young age playing at a local recreation or YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) to build their skills and IQ of the game. This sport also consists of two genders: male and female. One of the top associations in American sports today is The National BasketballRead MoreFemale Athletes And Sports Teams Essay1581 Words   |  7 PagesEssay Female athletes and sports leagues are viewed as less important than men’s professional athletics. This is because gender stereotypes are still evident in our society, which is shown in the way women are presented in sports media and that sports leadership roles are mainly male oriented in our society. There is a small percentage of female voicing at the higher levels of sports organizations, in Australian and Canadian leagues. This reflects why we need more women at the heads of these organizationRead MoreWomen Discrimination In Sports1572 Words   |  7 PagesDiscrimination in Women Sports Women have always been the minority in today’s world whether that’s in the work force or even in sports. Title IX a act that was made by the United States Congress in 1972 that said that no one should be denied to play, receive financial aid, or discrimination to any education program or activity that pertains to only one sex. (Senne 1) This act was a step towards more female participation and less discrimination, but those stereotypes most of society believes in stillRead MoreGender Inequalities Of Sports And Gender Inequality1468 Words   |  6 PagesGender Inequalities in Sport Men throughout history have been the dominant gender, from the times of hunting with stone weapons to the modern day metal and automated machines. Many negative connotations are thought of when comparing women to men like strength, but less so when comparing men to women. Is it the society’s view that women are weaker than men or is it a natural fact brought to light? In sports women experience many prejudices, but even so some sports are equal or even female dominant

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Erving Goffman Stigma free essay sample

An ethics of enhancement should not rest on blanket judgments; it should ask us to distinguish between the kinds of activities we want to enhance. Both students and academics have turned to cognition-enhancing drugs in significant numbers—but is their enhancement a form of cheating? The answer should hinge on whether the activity subject to enhancement is zero-sum or non-zero-sum, and whether one is more concerned with excellence in process or excellence in outcome. Cognitive enhancement should be especially tolerated when the activities at stake are non-zero-sum and when the importance of process is outweighed by the importance of outcome. The use of cognition-enhancing drugs does not unnaturally cheapen accomplishments achieved under their influence; instead, cognitive enhancement is in line with well-established conceptions of collaborative authorship, which shift the locus of praise and blame from individual creators to the ultimate products of their efforts. an essay on performance-enhancing drugs, author Chuck Klosterman (2007) argues that the category of enhancers extends from hallucinogens used to inspire music to steroids used to strengthen athletes—and he criticizes those who would excuse one means of enhancement while railing against the other as a form of cheating: After the summer of 1964, the Beatles started taking serious drugs, and those drugs altered their musical performance. Though it may not have been their overt intent, the Beatles took performance-enhancing drugs. And . . . absolutely no one holds it against them. Although he may be exaggerating on both points, Klosterman still suggests a serious argument about our society’s tolerance of performance-enhancing drugs: tacit acceptance of performanceenhancing drugs in one sphere of human activity should entail toleration in other spheres, and anything else is hypocrisy. On the contrary, I consider the attitude he criticizes to be basically correct: meaningful ethical judgments on performance enhancement require meaningful distinctions among the activities that are subject to enhancement. It is possible for a consistent ethical schema to excuse the Beatles and condemn Palmeiro. I focus my argument on cognition-enhancing drugs (CEDs) and their effects on one’s understanding of cheating and human accomplishment. Although CEDs raise a number of difficult ethical questions—including issues of distributive justice, social pressure to conform, and â€Å"hubris† in altering human nature—I set those questions aside to focus in depth on cheating and accomplishment. I also refer frequently to the use of CEDs in academic settings, which already has been a significant focus of debate; but the arguments I develop could, in principle, be extended to many other settings. I argue that two distinctions among activities are especially important for developing a coherent ethics of enhancement. The first is between activities that are zero-sum and non-zero-sum. The second is between activities that are predominately characterized by what I call â€Å"process goods,† excellence in the performance of an activity, or by â€Å"outcome goods,† the benefits an activity creates. Activities in academic settings may fall anywhere in this framework; willingness to tolerate the use of CEDs should largely depend on where the activities fall. Among the most common CEDs are modafinil, methylphenidate, and dextroamphetamine, which are available under the brand names Provigil, [ 146 ] Goodman †¢ CoGnitive enhanCement, CheatinG, and aCComplishment Ritalin, and Adderall, respectively. Although originally developed to treat diagnosed conditions ranging from narcolepsy to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, their off-label use has been reported to increase users’ recall, attention span, and ability to focus on cognitive tasks; in addition, modafinil has been shown to increase wakefulness (Butcher 2003; greely et al. 2008). Some CEDs also seem to enhance users’ â€Å"executive function,† or problem-solving ability (Mehlman 2004, p. 484). Beyond the currently available drugs, research into Alzheimer’s disease and other causes of cognitive decline in the elderly is likely to contribute, intentionally or not, to the further development of CEDs: The federal government’s annual expenditure of hundreds of millions of dollars on Alzheimer’s research alone may result in CEDs that are safer and more effective than those currently available (Mehlman 2004, p. 485). Anecdotal reports provide some insight into the effects of CEDs and the subjective experience of their use. Perplexed, I got up, made a sandwich—and I was overcome with the urge to write an article that had been kicking around my subconscious for months. It rushed out of me in a few hours, and it was better than usual. . . . I was just able to glide into a state of concentration—deep, cool, effortless concentration. It was like I had opened a window in my brain and all the stuffy air had seeped out, to be replaced by a calm breeze. Once that article was finished, I wanted to do more. I wrote another article, all of it springing out of my mind effortlessly. (Hari 2008) Another journalist, David Plotz of Slate, found similar results in his own unscientific experiment. He recorded the effects of two days of modafinil use in real time: â€Å"Today I am the picture of vivacity. I am working about twice as fast as usual. I have a desperate urge to write. .

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou Essays - Lecturers, Maya Angelou

Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou Phenomenal Woman Phenomenal Woman, by Maya Angelou, describes herself from her own point of view. Maya Angelou talks of her inner mystery and explains, to those who can't see it, why men notice her. Using a very rhythmic rhyming scheme, she projects a strong self-confidence. Using phrases that describe her body help her to show that self-assuredness. Every action she makes, from the stride in my step, to the fire in my eyes, shows that she moves about a room like she has complete control. The words she uses show that she knows what she is doing, and everything is intentional. She knows that even though she is not the generic, petite woman, she is beautiful and can attract attention from anyone she wants to. At one point, Maya Angelou says, I'm a woman. This statement is very broad. Broad in the sense that it speaks for many women, not just herself. She says this and it says, to me, that she is what she is. She is a woman, a woman who is phenomenal because she is herself, and she does not try to be anyone else but herself. Another place in this poem that shows this is when she says, it's the fire in my eyes, And the flash of my teeth, The swing in my waist, And the joy in my feet. At this point, she truly shows her happiness, in general, and with who she is. Pretty women wonder where my secret lies. Men themselves have wondered what they see in me. With these two phrases, among others, Maya Angelou almost leads the reader to think that she believes herself to be unattractive. Although, being herself is what makes her attractive. She proceeds to show the reader, however, that being herself is amazing, it makes her who she is, a phenomenal woman. Poetry

Friday, March 13, 2020

Effective Studies Skills Essays

Effective Studies Skills Essays Effective Studies Skills Essay Effective Studies Skills Essay Effective study skill OMG Iâ„ ¢m gonna fail, I know it! doesnâ„ ¢t this sound all too familiar to you Itâ„ ¢s known as the Iâ„ ¢m not good enough syndrome. Everyone has fears. Itâ„ ¢s quite natural. The great American industrialist Henry Ford said if you think you can, or think you canâ„ ¢t â€Å" you are right! what he was saying is that intention and expectation shape our actions. Good morning everybody, firstly I would like to welcome you to the senior year of study that will round off your secondary school. It is the year that will lead either to further study or to the learning experiences of the workplace. I believe many of you, by this time you should have set up your personal goal. In order to achieve your goal, you firstly need to overcome your fears and you attain effective study skills. Thinking positively is the first step towards success. Here is a simple ABC formula you can use to overcome your fears. A for action! Nothing can be done without action, so get started now! B is for belief. Itâ„ ¢s terribly important to have the sense that you are capable of doing what it is your desire. So yeah, I guess you can practise saying I can do it and I will for ten times everyday until the words become as much a habit as breathing, and the action which follows becomes as instinctive as the blinking of your eyelids! C for commitment, it is the stick at it or never say die factor. Keep in mind the famous quote by Thomas Edison genius is ten per cent inspiration and ninety percent perspiration. Ok, so if you are one of those confident students who believe that if you try hard you can achieve whatever you want, then you are very lucky! What you need now are some effective study skills. When friends ask me what makes for effective study, I tell them four things. You must have a right place, a time, a plan and a tidy approach. You need to have a special place for your study thatâ„ ¢s completely free of distractions. That means, donâ„ ¢t study with your TV or msn on and make up excuses for yourself such as, Iâ„ ¢m not gonna watch it, and I wonâ„ ¢t chat! Thatâ„ ¢s right, if you not gonna use them, TURN IT OFF! Iâ„ ¢m sure your mum will be very please that you have helped to reduce the energy bill! Set up your room with a big table so you can spread out, and adjust the light so it strong enough to read but not too bright. Put up a noticeboard so can stick up all your maths formulas. It is vital to have your room arranged so itâ„ ¢s comfortable, not too hot (or youâ„ ¢ll go to sleep), not too cold (or you will be distracted by shivering) make sure that the chair you sit on is padded, and upright. No lounge chairs please! Obviously, you need to have regular hours set aside every day for study and nothing else. Iâ„ ¢m going to advice you that 10 hours per week of dedicated homework is absolute minimum for year 12. more than that is better, though beyond 20 hours you should be very careful indeed of the danger of burnout. Less then 10 hours you are asking for trouble. If you are an early bird you can rise at 6 and put in two hours before school, if you are a night owl study in the evening is best. It doesnâ„ ¢t matter when to study, as long as the time suits your personal rhythms of activities and concentration. Now how many of you uses a diary here Then you need to plan your study! A year planner is a great idea. This is a map of the whole year, with spaces for everyday. On it you write in all the projects, essays, exams and other events that will be parts of your year. A diary is a must; this has to go with you to school everyday. Whenever a teacher sets a deadline, you write it in your diary. The type of diary you buy is up to entirely, you donâ„ ¢t need to get the ugly school diary, but you just need to have one! (You can talk about time management as organising things, you can actually combine them into one paragraph) Itâ„ ¢s no good having your own room, your own desk, your own computer etc â€Å" and allowing them to get into a mess. Make sure your bookshelf is divided up by subjects. Mix the books and I guarantee you will lose them. Each subject must have its own folder, which stays together securely. That subject folder should be orderly, each section of the course with its own section. You might like to colour code each subject, for easier identification. Whenever you add anything new, it must go into the proper place. Then youâ„ ¢ll have no trouble finding your notes! Remember that itâ„ ¢s your life. You can make choices and follow then. You can set goals, motivate yourself, study effectively, without being stressed out of your brain. If you follow the simple rules I have just talked about, Iâ„ ¢m sure you can survive year 12! Nothing changes until we do. That I can promise! So good luck!

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Pathophysiology- gasrtic acid stimulation on PUD,GERD,GASTRITIS Essay

Pathophysiology- gasrtic acid stimulation on PUD,GERD,GASTRITIS - Essay Example There are four main phases in the process of gastric acid production and these include basal phase which is constant acid release into the stomach. The cephalic phase involves the preparation for eating and acid secretion is triggered by impulses from higher CNS structures through CN X. Acid secretion in the gastric phase is due to distention of the abdomen and the intestinal phase is stimulated by amino acids and intestinal distension (Malfertheiner, 2009). There are several disorders that can occur as a result of hypersacidity which include peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux and gastritis. The acid accumulation in these cases is due to a series of aggressive factors such as alcohol, h. pylori and NSAIDs. For example in patients with hyperacid dyspepsia due to Helicobacter pylori there is an increase in gastrin production which stimulates the the parietal cells to produce HCl. Dietary factors and consumption of alcohol leads to stimulation of gastric mucosa leading to hypersecretion of acid from the parietal cells (Patel & Gyawali, 2012). Genetics have a role to play in the development of PUD, gastritis and GERD due to several reasons. Firstly, hyperacid dyspepsia can be a genetic condition whereby an individual naturally produces an elevated amount of acid therefore making him or her predisposed to developing the above mentioned conditions. Other genetic conditions such as hyperpepsinogemenia play a role in the development of peptic ulcer disease. Genetic defects of lower esophageal sphincter function also predispose an individual to GERD. Autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergic reactions increase an individual’s chances of developing peptic ulcers or gastritis (Patel & Gyawali,

Sunday, February 9, 2020

The expansion and settlement of the U.S Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

The expansion and settlement of the U.S - Essay Example However, this process of incorporation and inclusion of territories that had not previously been part of the United States was not something that came about on its own. Instead, it was encouraged by the government, by the press, and by individuals within the United States as something of a â€Å"manifest destiny†. As this confusing phrase implies, the destiny was that the United States was predisposed to conquer and occupy all of the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific, stretching all the way to Mexico in the South and all the way to Canada in the North. The primary rationale for this manifest destiny was that God had given the United States a unique opportunity and all of the lands that it was to occupy. Naturally, this particular rationale is reminiscent of the way in which the God of the Old Testament had given the land of Canaan to the Israelites as immutable; upon their exodus from Egypt. In terms of defense ability, this particular rationale is of course completel y and entirely indefensible. None of the individuals, whether members of the press, members of the government, where members of the individual society, has spoken with God and were able to definitively conclude that this is what you want. Furthermore, such a behavior trampled upon the rights of indigenous peoples and those that had otherwise laid claim to the regions that the United States slowly incorporated into the